I wrote Part 1 of this posting on a web-site I previously used in May 2011 and in 2012. Looking back through past postings I believe this one is worth repeating in the year 2017. Part 2 is additional information added in 2017.
As the European Union (EU) continues its march toward a unified Europe, even though severe cracks are appearing on the facade of unity (Greece and Brexit for example) and the euro-zone is in financial chaos, let us take a brief historical look at Europe.
It is by no means revelatory to state that the European Union was not designed, or meant to be, a democratic union of independent member states. Footprints of lies, deceit, and darkness have been left in the path of European integration since the early days of the Coal and Steel Union --- and historically, long before.
Those who have followed the crooked path of European integration from its early days may have long ago formed the opinion that it is not European democracy that has flowered and blossomed but rather tyranny by stealth.
An article from 2011 in the UK Telegraph Online underlines this belief:
A few quotes from the full article which can be read HERE.
Jean-Claude Juncker, Luxembourg's prime minister and the chairman of the eurogroup of single currency members (now President of the European Commision), called a secret meeting of the European Union's most powerful countries at the picturesque Chateau de Senningen on the outskirts of the tiny Duchy state.
Top of the agenda was the fate of Greece, after the International Monetary Fund (IMF) --- on the hook for Euro 30bn. of the original Euro 110bn rescue --- demanded that the EU come up with a new strategy as the Mediterranean country continued to plunge into debt and recession...
..Mr Juncker, who had not informed other euro-zone finance ministers of the meeting, chose to lie. "I totally deny there is a meeting," said his spokesman, as speculation mounted. Mr Juncker had already horrified many of his counterparts by openly bragging last month that he often "had to lie" to suppress public debate over euro-zone economic policies which, he claimed, were too important for open contemplation...
.."I am for secret, dark debates," he said. "When the going gets tough, you have to lie."
The whole common monetary policy (Euro) would appear to have been designed to fail and as is being witnessed now, an increasing number of countries are, in effect, losing their sovereignty due to a high level of indebtedness.
Was Germany already preparing for a new approach to European unity before WWII was over? They knew it was only a matter of time before they would have to capitulate to allied forces. Was German thoroughness already planning a third attempt within a century at European domination --- this time it would not be military warfare that would be the means to achieve it, but economic warfare?
A few quotes from EU movers and shakers should leave the reader in little doubt that the European Union was not designed to serve its citizens. Its design is to remove any nationalistic fondness and pride in ones own country. Regionalization is to replace sovereign states - EU citizen first, regional citizen second.
Some interesting quotes from former European leaders and advisers:
1. The concept of European unity is and remains the only effective insurance against nationalism --- Helmut Kohl, Dec. 1996
2. Might is right in politics and war --- Helmut Kohl, 1996
3. What does Europe therefore consist of? --- Germany --- Konrad Adenauer
4. The future will belong to the German when we build the house of Europe --- Helmut Kohl, 1995
5. Germany is the locomotive of the European train --- Helmut Kohl
6. We could never have constructed Europe by democratic means --- Claude Cheysson, French Foreign Minister
7. It is important to establish a European single currency core in order to stand firm against Anglo Saxon values --- Phillipe Matstadt, Belgian Finance Minister, 1996
8. We want the political union of Europe. Without monetary union there can be no political union and vice versa --- Helmut Kohl
10. European policy has been conducted by a very small number of people --- Kohl, Mitterand, Delores, two or three ministers; its a very small circle where decisions are taken and then ratified a posteriori, with regrets about the democratic deficit. --- Hurbert Vedrine, chief adviser to Mitterand at Maastricht
11. Does free Europe want to join Germany? Germany is the heart of Europe and the limbs must adjust themselves to the heart, not the heart to the limbs --- Hans Seebohm, Minister, Konrad Adenauers government, 1950
This statement made by Seebohm beggars belief when one considers that Germany was just beginning to recover from their second defeat in two World Wars --- wars that were started by them in the first half of the 20th Century. However, the Assyrian mentality does not accept defeat but was probably already planning its next and third attempt before their defeat in WWII?
Germany's first functioning democracy?
New documents reveal just how many officials from the Nazi regime found new jobs in Bonn. A surprising number were chosen for senior government positions. --- http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,810207,00.html
'A total of 25 cabinet ministers, one president and one chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany -- as postwar Germany is officially known -- had been members of Nazi organizations...'
... No one has ever dug this deeply. The highly controversial study on Nazi involvement at the Foreign Ministry, marketed last year as a bestseller, was only the beginning. Historians are now studying old files at the Finance Ministry, in the judiciary and the Economics Ministry and, in particular, in the police and intelligence services. How many Nazis took part in the rebuilding of the government after World War II? How much influence did the surviving supporters of the Nazi dictatorship have on the establishment and operation of Germany's first functioning democracy?...
Future of Europe --- Germany
German Chancellor Angela Merkel gave some interesting insight into her thoughts about Europe's future in a speech to the European Parliament in November 2012
"I am sure the Commission will become a government one day. Im sure that the Council will become a second chamber one day. And I am sure the European Parliament will take European responsibilities; otherwise it won't work in the long term. Today we must save the Euro and create the basis properly".
In other words the basis for the Euro was not initially created to work in the long term --- for a reason?
''We must give people a little bit of time so that they can come with us''
It is not "The People" who are to democratically vote and decide upon the future of Europe. The coming future of the European state has already been planned --- in detail --- and "The People" are expected to follow the plan ('come with us') for a European super state with its own administration and legislature.
German finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble has plans for a financial commission which is being backed by the President of the European Central Bank (ECB), Mario Draghi. The plan would entail creating a new post for a European Financial Commissioner.
The Commissioner would have the power to oversee sovereign states national budgets and if necessary veto them. In other words total fiscal control of all European member countries.
Mr Drahgi, has stated that: "in order to restore confidence in the euro area, countries need to transfer part of their sovereignty to the European level".
A Two Speed Europe
Germany insists on a two-speed Europe
Germany rising --- Again!
Angela Merkel said a core group of states needed to press on with European integration to fight the eurozone crisis, a rebuke to David Cameron, UK prime minister, who has called for more short-term crisis measures...
"We need more Europe. We don't only need monetary union, we also need a so-called fiscal union," she said. "And most of all we need a political union -- which means we need to gradually cede powers to Europe and give Europe control."...
A two speed Europe is no relatively recent idea - it is actually ANCIENT.
Dan.2:41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, for as much as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. 42 And [as] the toes of the feet [were] part of iron, and part of clay, [so] the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.
Ceding power to Europe means in effect ceding power to Germany - will the UK be a part of this new Empire (kingdom) in the making - doubtful?
UPDATE --- 23.03.2017
The year 2016 proved to be the year the UK decided (through a referendum) to begin the process of withdrawal from the European Union. Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty is planned to be invoked sometime in March 2017.
More on Lisbon Treaty HERE.
Otto von Habsburg
For 20 years (from 1979 to 1999) Otto von Habsburg was a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) representing the conservative German Christian Social Union (CSU) party. Deceased July 4, 2011
The Habsburg dynasty was a defender of the Roman Catholic Church for many centuries. The house of Habsberg provided many imperial rulers of The Holy Roman Empire and Otto von Habsburg was the oldest living claimant to the old Empire secular throne (as former crown prince of the Austro-Hungarian Empire). The so-called spiritual throne still resides where it has been for centuries.
Together with other leading figures such as Konrad Adenauer, Robert Schuman and Jean Monnet, Habsberg built the foundations of the European Community (beginning with the coal and steel union), which today we call the European Union.
Habsburg and others failed in their attempts to get Christianity included in the preamble to the European Constitution, or in the Treaty of Lisbon which was created in its place when the constitution was rejected by France and the Netherlands
On the face of it todays Europe appears to be a secular and somewhat divided union of semi-sovereign states; although the challenges that Europe currently face would appear to require some binding influence that would not appear (to the people) politically motivated.
A comment that Habsberg made that "Europe is a Christian continent, whether certain people like it or not". Reveals the strong historical link that he and his family predecessors had, and his descendants still have, to the Roman Catholic Church.
There is a tendency to forget the one small sovereign state within in Europe that is not an official member of the European Union --- Vatican State. The state may be small but its reach is formidable.
Holy Roman Empire
On Christmas Day 800 A.D. Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, was crowned Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III. This act was seen as a revival, or transference, of the Holy Roman Empire
It was the German emperor Otto I, (born Nov. 23, 912---died May 7, 973), Duke of Saxony (as Otto II, 936---961), German king (from 936), and Holy Roman Emperor (962---973) who consolidated the German Reich by placing the European Empire of Charlemagne under German rule.
From Ottos crowning to the dissolution of the Empire in 1806, by Napoleon, the title of Holy Roman Emperor was held, for the most part, by German monarchs --- many of which came from the descendants of the same family --- the House of Habsburg. The Habsberg dynasty came to be accepted as the hereditary emperors of the Holy Roman Empire as the throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1440 and 1740.
Frederick III (21 September 1415---19 August 1493), called the Peaceful, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death. Prior to his imperial coronation, he was hereditary Duke of Austria (as Frederick V) from 1424 and elected King of Germany (as Frederick IV) from 1440. He was the first emperor of the House of Habsburg. In 1493, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I after ten years of joint rule.
Albert II of Habsburg, also from the House of Habsburg, preceded Frederick III but was elected King of the Romans and never became a Holy Roman Emperor.
It was also under Holy Roman Emperor Charles V - 1519-1556 that the House of Hapsburg first became the great Catholic champions of Europe. It was he who argued with Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms and fought Protestants in Germany, the French in Italy and the Muslims in the Mediterranean.
European Union and the Vatican
Considering his family background, the former MEP, Otto von Habsburgs comment that "Europe is a Christian continent" is clearly referring to its historical and present connection to the Roman Catholic Church.
Habsburgs last speech to the European Parliament on May 7, 1999 ended with a plea for "the projection of European culture throughout the world". Global influence in other words. "Beyond its geographical boundaries, Europe has connections with other parts of the world which it cannot renounce, and which are part of its essential raison dêtre.?
Cardinal Archbishop of Vienna addressed him as "your imperial highness" at a Mass at the Stefansdom (St. Stephen's Cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop of Vienna) celebrating his 90th birthday.
Designs of Empire
A recurrent problem that has not been addressed (due to lack of agreement between member states) is that of establishing a European Head of State. Habsburg promoted a solution that the member states of the Union (presidents or monarchs of member states) should elect a Head of State of the European Union in the tradition of the "great elector of the Holy Roman Empire". It would be a lifetime position which, he suggested, should be monarchical in style but did not need to be that in form or name!!!
For information on the tradition of great elector of the Holy Roman Empire check-out the following URLs:
In the Holy Roman Empire, the electors or electoral princes (the German term is "Kurfürst", the plural: "Kurfürsten") had the function of electing the king of Germany preparatory to his accession as the next emperor, though until the 12th century they often merely formalized what was in fact a dynastic succession.
In other words, von Habsburg was promoting the resurrection of western empire. However, not content with empire, he also promoted the vision of a future Head of State becoming the defender (guardian in his own words) of an existing "European symbol which belongs to all nations equally. This is the Crown of the Holy Roman Empire, which embodies the tradition of Charlemagne, the ruler of a united occident".
Complete list of Holy Roman Emperors can be found HERE:
Crown of the Holy Roman Empire
Close-up photos of crown can be found HERE. and Imperial Regalia HERE.
Imperial Crown, also called Crown of Charlemagne, was created in the 10th century for coronations of the Holy Roman Emperors. Although made for Otto the Great (912---973), it was named for Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor.
In its basic forms, the crown dates to the second half of the tenth century and was the most important symbol of the office of emperor in the Holy Roman Empire.
Kept in the free imperial city of Nuremberg from the fifteenth century onwards, the crown was taken to Vienna in 1796 to prevent it falling into the hands of Napoleon. Since that time, with the exception of the National Socialist era (again returned to Nuremberg), it has been preserved in the Vienna Treasury.
Otto von Habsburg along with Konrad Adenauer, Robert Schuman and Jean Monnet could be called the fathers of the present European Union in that they created the foundation for a 7th resurrection of the Holy Roman Empire from its humble beginning as a coal and steel union between Germany and France. However, it appears that it was only Chapter 1 of a much more ambitious plan that would require time and subterfuge to realize:
We could never have constructed Europe by democratic means --- Claude Cheysson, French Foreign Minister 1981-84
"I am for secret, dark debates," he said. "When the going gets tough, you have to lie".- Jean-Claude Juncker 2011- https://euobserver.com/economic/32294
The Universal Church and Europe
Although the Vatican state is not an official member of the European Union it follows and contributes wherever possible to the political workings of the Union.
The Council of Europe and the Holy See have maintained official relations since 1962. The Holy See obtained observer status in 1970.
Pope Francis gave a speech to the Council of Europe in November 2014 in which he ended by saying: "My hope is that Europe, by rediscovering the legacy of its history and the depth of its roots, and by embracing its lively multipolarity and the phenomenon of a transversality in dialogue, will rediscover that youthfulness of spirit which has made this continent fruitful and great".
It is not difficult to discover the legacy of European history under the rule of various Holy Roman Emperors. The Holy Roman Empire is not just a relic of history. It tends to resurrect itself in various forms and usually with tragic consequences for those who oppose it. Are we witness to the birthing pangs of a 7th resurrection in Europe today?
The forthcoming exit of the United Kingdom from the EU could well be a factor that may contribute and hasten a tighter Universal grip on Europe?
The Catholic Church has a significant presence in Europe through, among other organizations, COMECE, the Commission of the Bishops' Conferences of the European Community, is made up of Bishops delegated by the Catholic Bishops? Conferences of the 28 Member States of the European Union. Its headquarter offices are located in Brussels. A small team monitors and analyses developments in EU policies and initiatives and strives to contribute to the relevant processes.
Further information on COMECE, including mission statement, can be found HERE
EVOLUTION OF THE DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE VATICAN --- More HERE
Pope Francis awarded Charlemagne prize for 2016
List of former laureates can be accessed HERE:
Interesting to note who was awarded the prize in previous years!
The Charlemagne Prize honours exceptional work performed in the service of European unity. According to its bylaws, it is given to public figures or bodies distinguished by their outstanding work toward European unity or cooperation between its states. The contribution, as Kurt Pfeiffer emphasized, can be made in the areas of literature, science, economics or politics.
Of course, the Charlemagne Prize quickly developed into a pre-eminently political award. Accordingly, politicians dominate the long list of recipients. These are the people who most often work toward integration and who are able to exercise a political influence.
Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church. It is also recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained.
The Pope is not only the religious leader of the Universal church but also the head of the sovereign entity Holy See; which has a wide-ranging influence politically and diplomatically.
Prior to receiving the prize in May 2016, the Pope addressed a gathering of European leaders inside the Vatican, which included the heads of the three main European Union institutions (Jean-Claude Juncker of the European Commission, Martin Schulz of the European Parliament and Donald Tusk of the European Council), along with German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Matteo Renzi, the prime minister of Italy.
Pope Francis reportedly stated that: "To the rebirth of a Europe weary, yet still rich in energies and possibilities, the Church can and must play her part", he declared to the political leaders gathered in the Vatican, "even though a clear separation between religious activities and political ones stands as a core principle in Europe".
It should be evident to anyone who has followed European politics that the so-called clear separation is rather unclear.
A prime example of unclear separation being that Pope John Paul II was awarded an Extraordinary International Charlemagne prize in 2004, and in an extract from a speech by the Mayor of Aachen at the award ceremony: "In this earnest moment the Awarding Committee of the International Charlemagne Prize is very happy, for the first time in its history, to be awarding an Extraordinary International Charlemagne Prize as thanks for extraordinary dedication to a remarkable personality who would also strengthen the strong visions of great visionaries. "The completion of the European Union, which became possible only after the fall of the Iron Curtain, has been relevantly influenced by you".
Martin Schultz returns to Germany
Martin Schultz has now resigned as president of the European Parliament and returned to his homeland of Germany in order to lead Germany's Social Democrats (SPD) and run for the chancellery against conservative Angela Merkel in the federal election scheduled for September 24. 2017.
Pope addresses Europe!
Pope Francis was invited to address lawmakers by European Parliament President Martin Schulz in 2013. Schulz said the pope had a message about fundamental values that was more relevant than ever in Europe. The Pope did address the Parliament on 25th November 2014
The address in full can be found HERE:
..I wish, then, to reiterate the readiness of the Holy See and the Catholic Church, through the Commission of the Bishops Conferences of Europe (COMECE), to engage in meaningful, open and transparent dialogue with the institutions of the European Union. I am likewise convinced that a Europe which is capable of appreciating its religious roots and of grasping their fruitfulness and potential, will be all the more immune to the many forms of extremism spreading in the world today, not least as a result of the great vacuum of ideals which we are currently witnessing in the West, since it is precisely mans forgetfulness of God, and his failure to give him glory, which gives rise to violence??
One just needs to check-out the Charlemagne prize laureates to see what the Pope is alluding to when stating that a Europe which is capable of appreciating its religious roots and of grasping their fruitfulness and potential.
..Awareness of ones own identity is also necessary for entering into a positive dialogue with the States which have asked to become part of the Union in the future. I am thinking especially of those in the Balkans, for which membership in the European Union could be a response to the desire for peace in a region which has suffered greatly from past conflicts...
It was Germany and the Vatican who were the first to recognize the breakaway states of Slovenia and Croatia prior to the Balkans conflict and persuaded NATO to attack militarily without UN sanction. See a previous posting HERE.
An anonymous second-century author wrote that "Christians are to the world what the soul is to the body". The function of the soul is to support the body, to be its conscience and its historical memory. A two-thousand-year-old history links Europe and Christianity. It is a history not free of conflicts and errors, but one constantly driven by the desire to work for the good of all.
The above statement, by the Pope, regarding the soul is, in my opinion, rather suspect. The Biblical account regarding the Soul is rather different.
See footnote 1 for further explanation.
A Europe which contemplates the heavens and pursues lofty ideals. A Europe which cares for, defends and protects man, every man and woman. A Europe which bestrides the earth surely and securely, a precious point of reference for all humanity!
A Europe which bestrides the earth as a point of reference for ALL humanity. This can not be interpreted other than working for a return to the former glory (?) of a Holy Roman Empire that throughout its cyclical history has been responsible for the death of millions. European Christianity (read Catholic) has certainly NOT worked for the good of ALL historically (including recent history)
Council of Europe
As well as addressing the European Parliament in 2014, Pope Francis also addressed the Council of Europe.
Full text of speech can be found HERE.
..This way of thinking also casts light on the contribution which Christianity can offer to the cultural and social development of Europe today within the context of a correct relationship between religion and society. In the Christian vision, faith and reason, religion and society, are called to enlighten and support one another, and, whenever necessary, to purify one another from ideological extremes. European society as a whole cannot fail to benefit from a renewed interplay between these two sectors, whether to confront a form of religious fundamentalism which is above all inimical to God, or to remedy a reductive rationality which does no honour to man.
There are in fact a number of pressing issues which I am convinced can lead to mutual enrichment, issues on which the Catholic Church ? particularly through the Council of Episcopal Conferences of Europe (CCEE) ? can cooperate with the Council of Europe and offer an essential contribution?
Mr Secretary General, Madame President, Your Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,Pope Paul VI called the Church an "expert in humanity". In this world, following the example of Christ and despite the sins of her sons and daughters, the Church seeks nothing other than to serve and to bear witness to the truth. This spirit alone guides us in supporting the progress of humanity.
In this spirit, the Holy See intends to continue its cooperation with the Council of Europe, which today plays a fundamental role in shaping the mentality of future generations of Europeans. This calls for mutual engagement in a far-ranging reflection aimed at creating a sort of new agorá, in which all civic and religious groups can enter into free exchange, while respecting the separation of sectors and the diversity of positions, an exchange inspired purely by the desire of truth and the advancement of the common good?
.. My hope is that Europe, by rediscovering the legacy of its history and the depth of its roots, and by embracing its lively multipolarity and the phenomenon of transversality in dialogue, will rediscover that youthfulness of spirit which has made this continent fruitful and great.
Although Pope Francis says many pleasing things to the ears, the Holy See appears determined to ensure that a non-member religious state outside of the European Union is to contribute to its (Europes) future. That Pope Paul VI called the Catholic Church an "expert in humanity" does little to assuage a sense of foreboding regarding the future of a Europe (considering the past history of the church) where the Unions religious arm is guided from Rome.
Romans 8:7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.
Although the Pope mentioned the sins of of the churches sons and daughters, he appears to have neglected to mention the gross sins of many of the Catholic priesthood. Many of those sins have come to light in recent times but how many more are hidden and those responsible protected by the very same church?
Pope Francis to share wisdom with EU leaders ahead of Rome summit
The 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaties is to be marked when EU leaders will hold a summit in the Italian capital on 25 March 2017, with the hope of creating a new positive vision for the European Union after Brexit.
EU heads of state and government are planning to meet with Pope Francis in Rome on the 24th March
It remains to be seen what words of wisdom Pope Francis plans to share with the political arm of Europe. Why would the Pope, the head of a sovereign state that is not a member of the European Union, wish to speak, yet again, with Union leaders the day BEFORE the marking of the 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaties?
The European Union faces a number of severe problems, not the least being that of finding a method of binding member nations into an ever closer type of federal super-state. Perhaps religion will be a catalyst that will bind European nations closer together. The United Kingdom is soon to depart from this Union, thus removing one obstacle to a potential resurrection of a Holy Roman Empire?
Footnote 1 - From a previous posting: http://aeon.blogg.no/1487533085_creation_of_man_and_human_nature.html
We will first take a quick look at Genesis 2:7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
BREATH of life; and man became a LIVING SOUL.
Contrary to the claim of many mainstream Christian religions, and others, this verse appears to reveal that man does not HAVE a Soul that is often portrayed as having many unseen attributes. Rather, man IS A SOUL. There would appear to be nothing spiritual about the Soul of man or any other living creature. This may well be a new concept for many people that have been taught (by other people) that man has a soul.
How can we be more specific about defining the word soul?
Let us take a look at the original Hebrew word:
Soul -- Strongs H5315 --- נֶפֶשׁ -- nephesh --- living being (with life in the blood), the man himself, self, person or individual, that which breathes, the breathing substance or being, soul, the inner being of man
That would appear to be self-explanatory.
To become a living soul requires BREATH --- [HEART (BEAT) EARTH].
The health of the planet we live on is apparently closely connected to our own health and well being.
We breathe air (oxygen) and oxygenate the blood stream, and as long as we keep breathing, we are a living soul. If we stop breathing, then it would be reasonable to say that we become a dead soul -- NOT AN IMMORTAL SOUL. -- Another new concept for a number of people I would imagine?
Note: The word nephesh (soul) applies equally to all living, breathing creatures --- not just mankind.
The difference between mankind and other living creatures
What then is the difference between humans and other living, breathing creatures, and the creation of man in Gen.1:27 and Gen.2:7?
Job 32:8 But [there is] a spirit in man: and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding.
We should not confuse this spirit (unseen human) with what is known as Gods Holy Spirit (also unseen -- the inspiration of the Almighty). The word understanding in the above verse is from the Hebrew--- Strongs H995 ---biyn --- to discern, understand, consider
Inspiration from Hebrew -- Strongs H5397 -- nĕshamah -- breath, spirit
Spirit in man -- Strongs H7307 -- ruwach -- wind, breath, mind, spirit
What happens when we stop breathing?
Ecclesiastes 12:6 Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern. 7 Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and THE SPIRIT shall return unto God who gave it.
Pope Francis quote, from an anonymous second-century author, who claimed that the function of the soul is to support the body, to be its conscience and its historical memory --- would appear to be in error!